An Introduction to the Science of the Qur’an
(How to Study and Understand the Quran)
Dr. Hasanuddin Ahmed, I.A.S.
CHAPTER - 10
ILMU TARJAMATIL QUR’AN
TRANSLATION OF THE QUR’AN
The discipline of translation of the Qur'an started when the Qur'an was introduced to people, whose mother tongue was not Arabic and when such people accepted Islam who were not acquainted with Arabic language. This discipline is one of the important 'ulum' of the Qur'an. For the knowledge of this discipline it is necessary to have sufficient information about the art of translation.
Art of Translation
Man is endowed with the ability to convey his feelings and experience to others through language. For this process of communication and intercourse man acquired both spoken language and the written language (through script). Different people and different regions developed their own languages. It was not possible for one group to know the language or languages of others and to converse with them. Thus necessity was felt to convey one's feelings and experiences into the other language. This process of conveyance or transference from one language to another is translation.
What is Translation?
Translation can be defined as the action or process of delivering from one language into another. It is the expression or rendering of sense of words, sentences, passages etc from one language into another.
By translation (tarjama) is meant the process of expressing the meaning of a text in a language different from the language of the original, in order that those not familiar with the original may know about it and understand it.
Objective of Translation
The basic aim of translation is to appropriately express the meaning of the original text into another language. The beauty and thoroughness of the translation is that it should not only be a correct rendering of the words of the original text but should be a fair representative of the feelings and ideas of the original. Even after transference into another language the spirit of the original should remain intact.
The Requirements of Translation
Translation is a regular skill. It has its own techniques. Like other arts and skills, apart from aptitude it requires earnestness, training, constant practice and hard work.
To enter into the field of translation it is necessary to have the knowledge of two languages. The language of the original and the language in which the original is to be rendered. One who translates should have greater command of the language into which the text is to be translated. He should be well versed with diction, idioms, terms and synonyms of the language.
One requirement of translation is to have knowledge of the subject. The translator should be aware of the details and the background of the text which he has to render into another language. He should be able to grasp the spirit of the orignial and then he should be able to give it a new garb.
Development of the Standard of Translation and the Evolution in its Language
Just in the same way as a translator by constant effort and practice adopts better expression for the original, when the tradition of translation advances, changes occur in the language itself. According to the requirement of translation new words and terms are coined, and new ways of expression are introduced in the language. Everyone who has studied the history of the art of translation is aware that when during the early Abbasid reign, books from Greek, Syriac, Pahlavi and Sanskrit languages were, translated on a very large scale and in an organised way, into Arabic, changes in the translated Arabic were more obvious than changes in the Arabic language itself during that period. The changes are so marked that the understanding of Arabic of early translations is difficult even for those whose mother tongue is Arabic.
Difficulties of Translation
There are different categories of translation just as there are different planes of communicating the thought through language. In every category the requirements of translation are different. Translation in the field of knowledge and of scientific literature is comparatively easier. If one has command over the subject and knows the words and terms of both the languages translation can be done with ease. The use of dictionary is helpful and should be sufficient for such translations. In such translations the problems of style, proper use of words and such other literary niceties do not come in the way.
The second category is of such translations which belong to cultural subjects such as stories, novels, etc. The job of the translator is not just to provide a synonym but to reflect one cultural relevance into another.
Translations of pure literary compositions both in prose and poetry come under the third category. To render one creative composition into another language is very difficult and delicate work. Especially in translating the poetic compositions, if the same exactness, and logical approach as in the case of scientific literature is adopted, the results will not necessarily be satisfactory. The similes, metaphors, symbols, metonyms, idioms etc of every language have their own peculiarities. The concept they express is more important than their simple dictionary meaning.
In such translations communication of the spirit is of utmost importance. Every language has its own beauties and niceties which cannot be transferred into any other language through translation.
Rendering of poetic composition and more so of revealed literature demands creative capabilities. The difficulty of translating such literature would be in direct proportion to the existence of finesse, emotions, exceptional expression and exquisite ideas in the original text.
The beauty of poetry of one language cannot be fully rendered into another language. If the lofty ideology of one language is transferred to another, it loses a major portion of the beauty and resilience of the original.
Every language has its own mood and its own terminology. Translating from one language into another poses various genuine difficulties. Translation of a word of one language into another is difficult. Even if a synonym is found there will be marked difference between their shades of meaning.
Every word consists of various planes of emotion and concept. Its full reflection in another language if not impossible is certainly very difficult. Often an exact equivalent of a word is not at all found in another language. In that case the translator has either to search for the nearest equivalent or to express the idea by expanding the meaning of the word of the original.
Limitations of Translation
Words of different languages do not express all the shades of meaning of their counterparts, though they may express specific concepts. "Translations have their limitations and shortcomings. No matter how successful a translation is, it cannot convey the original sense, feelings or impressions and it can never be perfect. The masterpiece of a language cannot be rendered in purity and precision in another language. Every language has its own spirit and ethos. The nuances of thought and delicate shades of meanings and ideas, depth of feeling and sensivity of expression cannot be conveyed with selfsame characteristic of style and diction as in the original language.
Translation, therefore, has the inherent weakness of imperfection".
Limitations of Translation of the Qur'an
The Qur'an can be counted as aesthetic literature and in addition it is a revealed Book. As such its translation is much more difficult than the translation of poetry.
The requirements of translation of the Qur'an are the same as the requirements of the translation of any literary and poetic composition. In addition the translator is required to have a grasp of the basic message of the Qur'an.
Since translations suffer from inherent shortcomings and limitations, it is difficult to get the very correct meaning of the Qur'an through translations.
Many translations of the Qur'an attempt to provide significantly accurate meaning and do go some way to help people understand its meaning, but they alone cannot create a capability of comprehension. As already emphasized translations have their own limitations and shortcomings.
Attempts to translate the untranslatable Qur'anic terms and representative words may be futile and suffer from an additional handicap as they represent human efforts to translate the divine word into worldly languages. In translation it is not possible to keep the artistic beauty and grandeur of the original text.
The Qur'an has used brevity as one of its stylistic devices. Short ayaat of the Qur'an contain elaborate matter. This feature poses the greatest difficulty for the translator.
In view of the above it is almost impossible to transfer the original text of the Qur'an word by word in an identical fashion into another language.
Translation of the Qur'an ‑‑ Lawful of or Unlawful?
In the 3rd/9th century there was tension between the Arabs (who were the conquerors) and the multitude of Muslims who were non‑Arabs. The Syrians, Iraqians and Egyptians had possesed languages near to Arabic. Their languages were soon absorbed into Arabic. The Iranians were the only nation who had separate language. They had rich heritage of culture. They assumed importance in administration, and acquired more importance in politics. The Arabs insisted that Persian should be kept below Arabic. In this atmosphere the question arose: Is translation of the Qur'an lawful?
Abu Hanifah and his immediate disciples held very liberal views. They even declared that reciting the translation in salat was permissible. They held that the parts of the Qur'an might be translated into Persian i.e., into any language other than Arabic but that it was not lawful to put the whole together in one volume unless the orginal text was placed opposite the translation. Scholars of later date however, declared translation of the Qur'an to be absolutely unlawful. This tendency continued even till 1929 when there was opposition to the English rendering of the Qur'an by Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall. Denunciation of translation and the translator (Pickthall) of Qur'an appeared in Al‑Ahram, Cairo from the pen of Sheykh Muhammad Shakir, a retired professor of Al‑Azhar. Scholars who opposed translation of the Qur'an however, pronounced that the writing of a commentary in Persian i.e., any language other than Arabic was lawful. The verdict perhaps was to forbid translation in a form that could assume the status of an (authorised) version or a substitute of the Qur'an.
Translation is 'Tafsir'
Translations of the Qur'an, in a way, can better be termed as 'tafsir' (commentary), for the translator in the process of rendering the Qur'an into another language, at first tries to grasp the meaning of the Qur'an passage by passage. This is exactly what the commentator does. In the process of rendering the translator contributes his own interpretation. Translation, in a sense, is a kind of tafsir since expression of the meaning in another language require 'tafsir'.
The only difference is that the translator restricts himself to the rendering of the words while the commentator elaborates the meaning he has grasped. In other words it can be said that translation is the shortest possible 'tafsir'. The commentators even in Arabic have differed with each other regarding the meaning of certain Qur'anic words and given explanations of the Qur'anic passages from various angles. Similar differences faced by the commentators can also be found between the translators.
The Difficulties Encountered by the Translators of the Qur'an
Eminent scholars who had command of the Arabic as well as of their own language and had the capability of understanding the meaning of the divine message, translated the Qur'an into their respective languages. All such scholars have no doubt, rendered valuable services. It is however, necessary to keep in mind the difficulties they had to face.
To render the full purport of any religious and revealed book into another language is not possible. The Qur'an is not only a revealed scripture but also a charter of a revolutionary movement. It is a collection of authentic revealed messages which are guidance for all times. Translations of the Qur'an therefore, suffer from an additional handicap.
When we talk of the Divine scriptures we mean the Qur'an and the Qur'an alone, as no other divine scripture today is free from human interference. As in the case of terms of any science or discipline the terms of the Qur'an are absolutely untranslatable. The principle of 'the nearest equivalent' may be inevitable but it is deceptive. Narrowing down of the meaning of the Qur'an to a limited extent in a foreign language would only mean missing out other and more important dimensions of the original terms of the Qur'an. No human language can possibly be adequate for conveying highest spiritual thought. A shade of meaning conveying the sense only in part can be expressed in a nearly equivalent word of another language. Thus if the terms or the representative words of the Qur'an are translated, in effect it amounts to fossilisation of the partly conveyed meaning. This becomes more significant when we see that the translators are usually guided by their predecessors
No matter how hard the translator tries, his achievement will fall short of his own estimation and will hardly do justice to the original text of the Qur'an.
There cannot be one single word in any language to convey the exact meaning of Qur’anic term. A group of words however, can give some idea of a term. In other words explanatory notes are required to convey the real meaning of the terms.
Qur'anic term is full ray of light. When a translator looks at it through the prism of an imperfect equivalent or a modern analytical language, he misses a great deal of its meaning by confining his attention to one particular tinge.
When we talk of the difficulties of translating the Qur'an we refer to the difficulties encountered by the translators themselves. No one can feel the difficulties involved better than the translators. A selection of their observations is therefore, presented:
In the foreword of his translation (which is the first English translation of the Qur'an by an Englishman who is a Muslim) Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall says:
"The Qur'an cannot be translated. That is the belief of old fashioned Sheykhs and the view of the present writer. The Book is here rendered almost literally and every effort has been made to choose befitting language. But the result is not the Glorious Qur'an, that inimitable symphony, the very sounds of which move men to tears and ecstasy. It is only an attempt to present the meaning of the Qur'an, and peradventure something of the charm ________ in English. It can never take the place of the Qur'an in Arabic, nor is it meant to do so”.1
In the introduction to his translation (the first American version) T.B.Irving (Al Hajj Ta'lim ‘Ali) says:
"Translation is literally impossible because interpretation in another language is an on‑going process, especially with a document that must be used constantly. Almost every day I learn a new rendering for a word or phrase; then I must run this new thread of meaning through other passages. The Qur'an is a living Book. We must respect yet find a way to interpret this sacred text, and not deform its meaning."2
In the preface of his English translation of the Qur'an Maulana Abdul Majid Daryabadi says: " Of all great works the holy Qur'an is perhaps the least translatable. Arabic is not at all easy to translate into a language so widely and radically differing from it in structure and genius as English, unless it be with the aid of loose periphrasis and lax paraphrase. Even so the fire of the original is quenched, its vivacious perspicuity is lost, and the so‑called literal translation looks rugged and dreary. That the language of the Arabs abounds in nuances and both the noun and the verb are extremely flexible, is a fact well known to every student of that tongue.
The difficulty is increased hundred fold when one has to render into English, with any degree of accuracy and precision, a work so rich in meaning, so pithy in expression, so vigorous in style and so subtle in implications as the Holy Qur'an. To reproduce even partially its exotic beauty, wonderful grandeur and magical vivacity without sacrifing the requirement of the English idiom and usage, is the despair of the translator and an ideal impossible of attainment. The result is that every fresh attempt at translating the Holy Writ bring home, in varying degrees, the truth of the old saying that nothing is so unlike an orignial as its copy."1
In the preface to the third edition of his English translation Muhammad Zafrulla Khan says:
"Translation is a difficult task of great delicacy, especially when the original is as rich and vast in meaning as Arabic. The difficulty is multiplied manifold in the case of a translation of the Qur'an, which being verbal revelation is the very word of God, and whose meaning is limitless and inexhaustible" 2
In view of the difficulties expressed above the translations of the Qur'an should be read with caution. It is perhaps not safe to recommend any of the translations of the Qur'an to one having no Islamic back‑ground with the assurance that by reading it he can grasp the exact meaning of the Qur'an. Such presentation of the Qur'an in a different language may even result in confusion and misguidance.
Each translator, in English as well as other languages has expressed in his own words that translating the Qur'an is difficult. It is necessary to have an idea about the variety of difficulties. The nature of one aspect of the difficulties have been elaborated by Maulana Abdul Majid Daryabadi:
"The impediments confronting an honest translator may be summed up under six main heads and various subheadings:
1. In the first place comes the comparative poverty of the English language in several respects.
2. Next repetitions of synonyms, chiefly for the sake of emphasis, is of frequent occurrence in Arabic; in fact, at times it is of considerable literary merit and beauty. In the English language there is no sanction for it.
3. Another serious difficulty is caused by the case with which ellipsis occur in the best and finest Arabic style and both words and phrases have to be supplied by the reader to make the sense complete. At one time, it is only the subject that is mentioned and the predicate is entirely suppressed, and at another, the reversse is the case. The obvious duty of the translator on all such occasions is to supply the commission, although his attempts in many cases must be hazardous.
4. Yet another perplexity is caused to the translator by the abrupt grammatical transition, in one and the same sentence, frequent in Arabic:
5. A further complication is caused by what is known as i.e., a personal or relative pronoun having different antecedents in one and the same sentence. The translator cannot afford to allow such ambiguities; he has to make his choice.
6. Finally, there is no real equivalence in the import of many of the Arabic and English words generally held to be synonyms."1
The efforts made are described by Allama Abdullah Yusuf Ali in the following words:
"I felt that with such life experience as has fallen to my lot, my service to the Qur'an should be to present it in fitting garb in English. That ambition I have cherished in my mind for more than forty years. I have collected books and materials for it. I have visited places, undertaken journeys, taken notes, sought the society of men, and tried to explore their thoughts and hearts, in order to equip myself for the task. Some times I have considered it too stupendous for me, the double task of understanding the original, and reproducing its nobility, its beauty, its poetry, its grandeur, and its sweet practical reasonable application to every‑day experience. Then I have blamed myself for lack of courage, the spiritual courage of men who dared all in the Cause which was so dear to them. Watered by tears, my manuscript began to grow in depth and earnestness if not in bulk. I guarded it like a secret treasure. Wanderer that I am, I carried it about thousands of miles, to all sorts of countries and among all sorts of people".1
The Need for the Translation of the Qur'an:
In spite of the fact that translations of the Qur'an have their own limitations and cannot be completely relied upon, their use is inevitable for those believers whose mother tongue is not Arabic.
The Qur'an is a guidance for the entire humanity. Although its language is Arabic the Qur'an is not confined to the Arabs. According to its claim all human beings irrespective of nationality and race are equal in receiving guidance from it. The message of the Qur'an is universal and its addressees are all human beings:
“(O Prophet) Say "O men ! I am sent unto you all as Messenger.” (Qur’an 7:158)
Since the Qur'an was revealed in a particular region and a particular period in history, it was but necessary for it to be intelligible to the people of that particular region and that particular period. The limitation of space and time, however is restricted to the language only. The message of the Qur'an is universal and comprises such values by which people of all countries and of all times can be benefited. One logical conclusion can be drawn from this: The responsibility of setting the Qur'an free from the bondage of the Arabic language devolves on the believers.
In connection with the translation of the Qur'an two amazing features are evident:
1. During the last 1400 years the language of the Qur'an has not changed.
2. The Qur'anic teachings and values have relevance to all times. It is not the case with the translations of the Qur'an. One translation of the Qur'an loses the relevance within say, fifty or hundered years and the need of another translation is felt.
Of all the religious books of the world the text of the Qur'an alone is fully preserved. This fact is important and full of implications. It is the most valuable asset for the Muslims as well as for the entire humanity which should be fully cherished.
Allah has taken the responsibility of preserving the text of the Qur’an:
"We have, without doubt sent down the Message;
and We shall assuredly guard it ( from corruption )". (Qur'an 15:9)
Of the various methods of preservation one is the salat: In the obligatory prayer five times a day recital of some portions of the Qur'an is prescribed.
Recitations of Translations in 'Salat':
There are translations of the Qur'an in almost all the languages of the world. In several languages (e.g., Persian, Urdu, English, French etc.,) the translations are in considerable number. It may however, be noted that "There is only one text of the Qur'an in circulation today and it is exactly the same that the Prophet of Islam received from Allah and handed down to posterity through his illustrious Companions. In other words, the textus receptus of the Qur'an in today's world is the exact textus originale”.
The Qur'an in translation is not so authoritative as the Qur'an in its original wording. A translation of the Qur'an cannot be used as a `root' or `source' of the Islamic doctrine.
In the presence of the original therefore, no translation of the Qur'an in any language can be considered as official version. No translation can claims to be perfect. In view of this position the majority of the Muslim scholars are of the view that translation of the Qur’anic passages cannot be recited in the obligatory prayers i.e., 'salat' and that such recitations would render the 'salat' invalid.
From the point of view of the preservations of the Qur'an, uniformity of the 'salat' as well as demonstration of unity of the Ummah also recitation of the original text in the 'salat' is necessary. The universal practice among the entire Ummah is that the original text of the Qur'an alone is recited in the 'salat' and translation in any language whatsoever is not recited.
There is however, a difference of opinion in this regard. Some scholars (in particular some Hanafites) say that someone not familiar with the Qur'anic language may recite short passages in his mother tongue until he has learnt them in the Qur'anic language.
There is also an authority that the Prophet once allowed a group of Iranians to recite the translated portion of the Qur'an temporarily till they learn Arabic. Sheikh Mahmud Shaltut, Ex Azhar Rector permits the use of a translation of the Qur'an for devotional purposes in the prescribed five daily prayers.
Is knowledge of Arabic san quanon for understanding the Qur'an?
Since the Qur'an is in Arabic it is but necessary to have command over Arabic Language in order to understand its contents. However, we should take into consideration that an overwhelming majority of believers is not Arabic knowing and that it is not practically possible for all such believers to learn Arabic. When such is the case, it is inevitable for those whose mother tongue is not Arabic to seek the help of translation in spite of the limitations of translation.
Requirements of translation of the Qur’an:
The translator must be a believer.
The translator must have adequate knowledge of both Arabic and of the language of translation.
The translator must be acquainted with the related sciences (Ulum al Qur’an).
Are the translations of the Qur'an inevitable?
The understanding of the Qur'an is so very essential for the Muslims. As for those whose mother tongue is not Arabic the teachings of the Qur'an can be understood in two ways.
Either by learning Arabic language or through translations. Learning of Arabic with other avocations if not impossible, would certainly be a difficult task. In view of the above it is inevitable for non-Arabic knowing believers to take the help of translation (preferably more than one) in their attempt to understand the text of the Qur'an.
There is one – and important – justification for the translation of the Qur'an in other languages:
During the lifetime of the Prophet himself, we notice, that on more than one occasion selected messages of the Qur'an were translated:
1. Due to the hardened attitude of the Makkans, some Muslims, were facing great hardship. The Prophet directed them to migrate to Abyssinia (Ethiopia) where a liberal Christian monarch entitled Negus (Najaashi) was in power. The Makkans sent a delegation headed by Amar bin Al‑A'as for extradition of the 'fugitives'. Najaashi called the Muslims. Jafar bin Abi Talib pleaded the case of the Muslims with great ability. On this occasion translation from a passage from Surah Maryam (19) was recited in front of Negus. It might even be taken as a clear indication that the Muslim migrants were prepared to recite the translation.
2. Similarly when the Prophet sent a letter to the Byzantine emperor Heraclius, among others, it contained ayaat of the Qur'an. It was necessary to translate the contents of the letter as well as the ayaat. According to the report translators were called for interpreting the conversation between Heraclius and Abu Sufyan as well as translating Prophet's letter and the ayaat contained therein.
3. When some Iranians who had accepted Islam applied for permission to say their prayers in Persian, the Prophet asked Salman Farsi to translate Surah Al Fatiha and sent it to them. However, this was a temporary arrangement till the Iranian converts learn Arabic.
There is yet another justification for the translation of the Qur'an for the understanding of non Arabic knowing believers: A substantial portion of the Qur'an itself consists of translation. This is an interesting fact which is not generally noticed. The conversations of Prophets quoted in the Qur'an were certainly not in Arabic language. Allah in His mercy and grace has presented the translation in Arabic for the understanding of the first addressees the Arabs.
Since the message of the Qur'an is eternal and universal it has to be conveyed to people of different linguistic groups in their own language.
Such believers whose mother tongue is not Arabic, for the sake of understanding and guidance, should certainly take help from translations in their respective languages. In view of the limitations of translations however, they should invariably consult more than one translation. In addition they should always keep an eye on the original text which is by grace of Allah available to them in tact and try their best to take advantage of the original to the maximum possible extent. All the valuable efforts of the scholars, commentators and translators are for the correct understanding of the Qur'anic text. The believers should not entirely depend on the judgement of others but should try to discover and arrive at the meaning through their own sustained efforts. They should realize that taking guidance from the Qur'an is necessary as well as possible without having command of the Arabic language. They should try to understand the Qur'anic concepts contained in the Qur'anic terms which are untranslatable.
Use of brackets in translations
The translators of the Qur'an whose main aim is to be true to the original on the one side tries to see that not a single word is used in their rendering the equivalent of which is not found in the original text. On the other hand they are fully aware of their duty to convey the sense of the original as they have understood. This requires addition of a word or two. To reconcile both the contrary approaches the translators have resorted to the use of brackets. A word or a phrase which they are obliged to add is put in bracket to show that its equivalent is not found in the Qur'an. It is the constant effort of the translators to see that the contents in the brackets are to the minimum possible extent. The use of brackets with minimum possible contents distinguishes the translation from 'tafsir' (commentary) wherein elaborate explanations are offered.
The necessity of using brackets can be understood if we take one stylistic device of the Qur'an into consideration. The omission of one word in an ayah which would be needed to express the sense completely, is called ellipsis. We find elliptic ayaat in the Qur'an as a part of its style in which one or more words or phrases are omitted. Without incorporating the interpolations, which are obvious to a careful reader the meaning of the ayah is not quite clear. Such additional words or phrases are used in brackets, by the translators. In short, the words in brackets have been added by the translators in an attempt to explain or interpret the text of the Qur'an.
Like footnotes, brackets are also used to avoid introduction of myriad of qualifying clauses and endless digression in the body of the work.
Corruptions in some earlier scriptures through translations
When we discuss about the translations of the Qur'an and their limitations we should keep in mind a historical fact which is very relevant. Some earlier religious books especially the Old and the New Testaments were mostly corrupted during the process of translation. Parts of Old Testament which were from earlier times preserved by oral transmission were recorded in writing from 100 AD onwards. The corpus or collection of the various translations of these parts in Aramaic were called targum or tarjum.
The word 'tarjama' (Arabic and Urdu equivalent of translation) itself is derived from 'targum'. The clergy which was expected to safeguard the text of the Old Testament translated it according to its own liking due to ignorance and with selfish motives. It was possible to do so because during the process of rendering the translator has a choice to select a synonym. Even if a text is rendered faithfully and sincerely there is a possibility of deviation from the original. When the translation is motivated the result would be obvious. Ironically in case of the Old and the New Testament the translations were declared as version or even authorised version and the original text disappeared.
In respect of the Old Testament which the Qur'an refers to as Taurat the original text is extinct. Only translations and translations of translation are available.
When the Qur'an is confronted with more than fifty translations in English one should take lesson from the bitter experience with Bible and guard against the possible damage the translations can do.
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 Dr. Mohd. Hameedullah – Jadeed Qanun Bainul Mumalik Ka Aghaaz
(Urdu) Pages E and F.
 The author’s, An Easy Way to the Understanding of the Qur’an part 1
 See Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall’s article: “Arabs and non Arabs and the Question of translating the Qur’an” in Islamic Culture July 1931.
1 Marmaduke Pickthall – Holy Qur’an English Translation Page 3.
2 T.B. Irving – The Qur’an, the first American Version Translation and
Commentary Page XXIV.
1 Maulana Abdul Majid Daryabadi - Holy Qur'an; Translation and Commentary – Vol. 1 Page IX.
2 Muhammed Zafrulla Khan - The Qur'an – Page VIII.
1 Maulana Abdul Majid Daryabadi – The Holy Qur’an Arabic text with translation and commentary, preface.
1 Abdullah Yusuf Ali - The Holy Qur’an English Translation of the meanings and commentary, Preface to first edition 1934 Page III & IV.
 See chapters 4 and 8
 The author’s ‘A New Approach to the Study of the Qur'an’ Page 11.
 For one such efforts see ‘An Easy way to the Understaneding of the Qur'an' by the same author. In the second stage of the Project the self study of the Qur’an is further simplified: By knowing the meaning of only 366 roots one can understand about 90% text of the Qur'an.
 For details see A New Approach to the Study of the Qur'an by the same author.